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Distillation is a chemical process of separating different substances based on their different vaporization temperatures. This process is based on the principle that different substances have different vapor point temperatures. After heating a mixture of substances to its vapor point, the individual components turn into a gas and then condense back into a liquid. In this way, it is possible to separate the different components of a mixture based on their different vaporization temperatures.

Distillation is often used to purify, concentrate or separate various substances. There are several types of distillation, including simple distillation, fractional distillation, reflux distillation, and vacuum distillation. Each of these types has its use and depends on the specific needs of the separation.

Simple distillation is used to separate a pure liquid from a solid or liquid impurity. Fractional distillation is used to separate a mixture of liquids with close vapor points. Reflux distillation is a process where the vapor phase is returned back to the still, allowing for multiple liquid passes between the vapor and liquid phases, resulting in higher separation efficiency. Vacuum distillation is used to distill substances that have very high vapor point temperatures and allows them to be distilled at reduced pressure, which lowers the vapor temperature.

Distillation is a widely used process in the chemical industry, food industry, pharmacy, laboratories and many other industries. It is an important tool for separating and purifying substances and enables the production of many products that are used in everyday life.

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