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Heat Pump

A heat pump is a thermodynamic device that serves to transfer heat from one place (heat source) to another (target heat removal) using the heat pump cycle. Its main purpose is to transfer heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature using a working substance and an external energy source.


Heat pumps work on the principle that heat spontaneously transfers from a higher temperature to a lower temperature. A heat pump reverses this process, allowing heat to be transferred from a lower temperature to a higher temperature, which is useful for heating and water heating.

Heat pumps use a working substance that circulates in a closed system. This working substance can have a low temperature and a liquid state when in contact with a heat source. During the heat pump cycle, this working substance is compressed and heated, increasing its temperature. Subsequently, it condenses, releases heat and passes into a gaseous state.

The gas phase of the working substance passes into the expansion valve or turbine, which reduces its pressure and temperature. This cool and gaseous working substance then passes into the heat exchanger, where it is in contact with the target heat sink. In this step, the working substance absorbs heat and goes back to the liquid state.

Subsequently, the working substance is compressed again, and the heat pump cycle is repeated. The heat pump must obtain energy to compress the working substance and to transfer heat. This energy is obtained from an external source, which can be electricity, gas or renewable energy sources such as solar energy or geothermal energy.

The advantage of a heat pump is that, compared to other types of heating, it can provide more heat than the energy that is spent on it. This contributes to saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to heating, heat pumps are also used for cooling and preparing hot water in various applications.

There are several types of heat pumps available today, including air-to-air, air-to-water, water-to-water, and ground-to-water heat pumps. Each type has its own advantages and limitations that must be considered when selecting and installing them.

Overall, heat pumps represent an energy-efficient solution for obtaining heat and cold and are an important step in the pursuit of sustainable and environmentally acceptable heating and cooling systems.


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