A microprocessor (abbreviated µP or uP) is a type of processor that is integrated as a whole into a single integrated circuit. The processor is part of several electronic devices. Due to the fact that software (the sequence of instructions processed by the processor) makes it possible to implement even very complex electronic circuits more easily, and due to the constantly falling prices and increasing capabilities of microprocessors, they are used in almost every more complex electronic device (radios, computers, printers, washing machines , refrigerators, televisions, etc.).
The main types of microprocessors:
CPU (Central Processing Unit - the processor of the basic unit of the computer) - the main (micro)processor of the computer (in the past, however, the CPU did not always have the form of a microprocessor)
GPU (graphics processor) - the main microprocessor of the graphics card
APU (Accelerated Processing Unit) - CPU and GPU in one case
a math processor (FPU), also referred to as a math coprocessor, is today mostly integrated with the CPU in a single package.
signal processor (DSP processor)
other specialized processors
Before the invention of microprocessors, electronic CPUs were made from separate TTL integrated circuits; previously from individual transistors; and even earlier based on tubes. There were designs for simple calculating machines based on mechanical parts such as gears, shafts, levers, tinkertoys, etc. Leonardo Da Vinci designed one of these, although it could not be assembled by the manufacturing methods of his time.
It is known that the evolution of microprocessors has thus far followed Moore's Law of constant performance increase over time. This law states that "the complexity of an integrated circuit with respect to the minimum cost of a component doubles approximately every 18 months," which has generally and surprisingly been happening since the early 1970s. From humble beginnings as the brains of calculators, increasing performance has led to the dominance of microprocessors in every other form of computing; every system from the largest mainframe to the smallest handheld today uses a microprocessor at its core.