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potential of hydrogen

pH (hydrogen potential) is a measure of acidity or alkalinity of a solution, i.e. a measure of the concentration of aqueous hydrogen ions (H+) in a given environment. It is a dimensionless value that is measured on a logarithmic scale from 0 to 14, where a value of 7 indicates a neutral solution (water solution), a pH below 7 indicates an acidic solution, and a pH above 7 indicates a basic solution.



More detailed division of pH:

Acidic environment: A pH lower than 7 indicates that the solution is acidic. The lower the pH value, the more acidic the solution. For example, sulfuric acid has a pH of about 1, citric acid has a pH of about 2, and lemon juice has a pH of about 3-4.

Neutral environment: pH 7 indicates a neutral solution, which means that the concentration of H+ ions is the same as OH- (hydroxide ion) and the solution is neither moderately acidic nor basic. Water has a pH of 7.

Alkaline environment: A pH greater than 7 indicates that the solution is alkaline. The higher the pH value, the more alkaline the solution. For example, sodium hydroxide (sodium) has a pH of about 14, bile has a pH of about 8, and milk has a pH of about 7-8.

Changes in pH can affect chemical reactions, the speed of enzymatic processes, the dissolution of substances and their properties. The importance of pH is significant not only in chemical laboratories, but also in biological systems, soils, waters, and products such as food and cosmetics, which must have a certain pH to be safe and effective for use.

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