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A capacitor is a passive electrical element that serves to temporarily store electrical energy in the form of an electrical charge. It consists of two conductive plates separated by a dielectric (insulation). The dielectric can be air, paper, glass, plastic or other material with high insulating ability.


The principle of operation of the capacitor consists in the accumulation of electrical energy on its plates in the form of a charge. When an electrical potential difference (voltage) is created between the plates, electrons move from one plate to the other, creating an electric charge. This charge is able to be stored in the capacitor until the moment when electrical energy needs to be released.

Capacitors are widely used in electronics and electrical engineering, for example:

Filtering and voltage equalization: Capacitors are used to equalize current and voltage in power supplies and filter circuits, ensuring a stable supply of electrical power.

Starting electric motors: Starting some electric motors uses capacitors to temporarily increase the current, allowing the motor to start quickly and efficiently.

Energy-saving light sources: In energy-saving fluorescent lamps and LED lamps, capacitors are used to regulate the current and maintain a stable light output.

Electronic circuits: In microchips and other integrated circuits, capacitors are used to store important data and for filtering purposes.

Capacitors come in a variety of sizes and capacities, from small capacitors used in simple electronic devices to large capacitors in industrial applications. Their properties depend on the materials they are made of and their construction. Capacitors are an integral part of modern electronics and ensure the proper functioning of many electrical devices and systems.

Vytvořil Shoptet | Design Shoptetak.cz.