Air conditioning (denoted by the abbreviation AC from the English air conditioning) is the modification of the quality parameters of the air in closed spaces or a device (a system of devices) for such modification and distribution of such modified air. The main feature of air conditioning is the regulation of air temperature and humidity, which distinguishes it from ventilation, which only ensures the exchange of fresh air.
Air conditioning is sometimes necessary, for example in hospitals, some trains or some types of mines.
Split air conditioning systems, intended for one room, consist of a separate condenser with a compressor located in the outdoor environment and an indoor unit that contains an evaporator. They are connected to each other by a copper insulated pipe that carries the cooling medium.
MultiSplit air conditioning systems intended for several rooms (usually 2 to 5), consist of a separate condenser with a compressor located in the outdoor environment and several indoor units that contain evaporators. Each indoor unit is connected to the outdoor unit by a copper insulated pipe that carries the cooling medium. Each indoor unit is individually controlled by its own controller, but all indoor units run in the same mode (cooling or heating).
Twin, Tripple a DoubleTwin systémy
If the room is large or highly divided, it is possible to use the Split system, in which the cooling power of the indoor unit is divided into two, three or up to four indoor units, which ensures a more even distribution of cold or heat in the room. The connecting pipe leading from the outdoor unit is divided into several branches in the room in hubs (refnets) and the indoor units are connected to it. All indoor units have a common controller and work at the same time with the same parameters and settings.
Mobile split air conditioning
A mobile split system consists of an indoor unit on wheels connected by flexible pipes to an outdoor unit, similar to fixed split systems.
Mobile hose air conditioner
The entire air conditioner consists of one unit on wheels, which contains both a condenser and an evaporator. The discharge of air heated by the condenser is provided by a fan, which is connected to a hose that must be led to the outside environment. The disadvantage of this type of air conditioning is its reduced efficiency, because it uses air from the air-conditioned room to cool the condenser. Another disadvantage is that this type of air conditioning constantly pumps air out of the room, thereby creating a negative pressure that causes non-conditioned air to enter the room.
There are also mobile air conditioners with two hoses that solve these disadvantages. The second hose serves to supply air from the outside environment for cooling the condenser. At the same time, there is no negative pressure in the room, because the air conditioning unit only recirculates the air in the room.
Window air conditioners
The window air conditioner is installed directly in the window of the room. The evaporator is located inside the room and the condenser is in contact with the outside environment.
VRV (VRF) systems
VRV (VRF) air conditioning systems are designed for multiple rooms (up to 64), consisting of a separate condenser with a compressor located in the outdoor environment and several indoor units that contain evaporators. The connecting pipe leading from the outdoor unit is divided into several branches in the building in hubs (refnets) and the indoor units are connected to it. Each indoor unit is individually controlled by its own controller. The entire system can be supplemented with a central controller or a device for calculating costs (consumption).
VRV (VRF) heat pump
The system allows cooling or heating mode. The system is two-pipe.
VRV (VRF) with heat recovery
The system enables simultaneous cooling and heating mode, thus enabling energy to be pumped within the building. The system is three-pipe (possibly also 2-pipe). Indoor units are connected via BS-boxes, in which the desired mode is switched.
Impact on health
Air conditioning (with air filtering, humidity adjustment) is used in places with increased demands for a clean and hypoallergenic environment, such as operating theaters and hospital premises. In extremely hot weather, it can prevent dehydration and collapse from overheating of the body.
Improper use of air conditioning due to circulating air set to extremely low temperatures and in the wrong direction can lead to dry eyes and their burning, headaches, stiff neck muscles, dry skin, angina, exacerbation of asthma and the like. Avoiding thermal shocks during transitions between air-conditioned and outdoor environments is a fundamental measure. Neglected maintenance of air conditioning equipment, especially the replacement of filters, can lead to air pollution. The most risky is the spread of disease-causing microorganisms, especially Legionella.